Fan Studies

    💬📚 “‘Pure,’ ideologically unadulterated consumption/fandom may be a possibility, but it’s not what most media fans experience or enact.” Lori Morimoto, An Introduction to Media Fan Studies

    What’s that? Oh, just a quick pamphlet bind of Lori Morimoto’s An Introduction to Media Fan Studies 📚

    A zine-style book of Lori Morimoto's An Introduction to Media Fan Studies.

    #FSNNA 22 Roundtable: Materiality & Liveness


    Welcoming everyone to the session "Materiality & Liveness"

    Talking about WWE and the impact of it being termed an "essential business" during COVID shutdowns

    Professional wrestling bridges the gap between sports & entertainment

    When both entertainment & sports were shut down, WWE was still available with both athletics and storytelling and thus the potential to appeal to fans of both sports and media.

    Lucas's argument: WWE didn't have live audiences during shutdown like they usually do. They had to have a national audience to stay open for working, but only at facilities closed to the public.

    WWE met both criteria when most other sports couldn't.

    WWE moved toward "cinematic matches" - "like an extended version of a video game cutscene" - wrestlers in story-specific environment with editing, effects, and supernatural elements.

    Matt Griffin:

    Playful Nostalgia: (Re)creating Video Game Spaces as Mods

    Nostalgia for 3D platformer video games from the late 90s/early 00s like Super Mario 64, Sonic Adventure. Newer games are emulating (but not, y'know, ~emulating~) the older games.

    Marketing and branding include a pitch toward nostalgia: "It's just like N64" "It's just like the Gamecube"

    How do players take up this nostalgia themselves? For example, players create environments from old games in newer video games - e.g. creating an area from Super Mario Sunshine in A Hat in Time

    We aren't limited to a single mod, so you could play in A Hat in Time, a Sonic Adventure level, with Sora from Kingdom Hearts as your player, riding a Kart from Mario Kart Double Dash.

    Factors that influence textual meaning: paratexts, plays, fan-made histories, "mods as simulacra"

    "Player-made mods construct nostalgia through remediation and play"

    Emma ✨:

    Talking about authorship in TRPGs (!!! calling @theroguesenna & @friede)

    Looking at changes in D&D and other TRPGs related to race.

    Summer 2021 was the #SummerofAabria when Abria Iyengar was guest DM on multiple actual play shows

    AP has often been associated with the creation of a single DM but when Iyengar's work raised the question: how does authorship change when you have a guest DM? Who has authority?

    Now notions of canonicity are taking root in actual play. How do TRPGs exist as both a transformative and an original work?

    DMs like Iyengar can use their work to critique traditional depictions in fantasy.

    Dylan McGee:

    The cultural afterlife of plastic toys and how they're curated and collected online now

    Fans have to make consequential decisions about material objects (collectable toys) based on digital images

    "attachments and affects can be complicated when realizing that what arrived in your mailbox was not exactly what you bought online"

    Buyers read the materiality through images: What quality is the plastic? How much has it been damaged? Is it authentic? Is the blister packaging still attached?

    During COVID, there's been a boom in the fan economy of vintage collecting.

    A lot of collectors have liquidated their collections because they didn't have enough income during COVID.

    The Japanese Yen to the dollar is at a 32 year low, so lots of Japanese collectors are liquidating them and selling to buyers overseas (mostly in America).

    These collectors then only have immaterial access to their collections - images and memories.

    Matt Griffin:

    There are important distinctions between player-made mods and official re-releases. There's more freedom to mix-and-match. Legality is an interesting question. Mods aren't strict emulations (in the code sense).

    Court case in 2016 found you can't copyright ALL of a game. For example, you can't copyright game mechanics. Player-made mods do give players a sense of ownership.

    People get introduced to older "texts" (video games) through these mods - e.g. you play an area in A Hat in Time, and decide to then go explore the game it's originally from.

    Reproducing a cartridge like Limited Run games does introduces a new materiality that's different from mods. The gatekeepers are different: purchase vs. download from fansite.

    Emma ✨:

    Players of D&D often have a strong intertextual awareness before they even sit down at the table, usually have engaged deeply with fantasy through literature, film, video games.

    There's often either a dissatisfaction with or true love of fantasy media that the player brings to the table and uses as inspiration for their character.

    If the rules are dissatisfying/frustrating (e.g. I want to play as a dark elf and it's wrong of the rules to penalize me for that), this is where homebrew comes in. This leads to players & DMs bring worldview to the game.

    based on personal experience, "play seems to become more valued as you have less recreational time." When work happens at home during lockdown, it can feel like all of life is work so

    Additionally, the interpersonal aspect adds extra value. For example, RPing just hanging out in a pub became a fantasy it was valuable to play out.

    Rules can give real-world obstacles a clear stat block and make it possible to fight these things in a really satisfying way.

    Dylan McGee:

    Unlicensed toys also became part of the market and are often more highly valued by collectors than official, licensed ones.

    #FSNNA22 Keynote: Turn On, Tune In, Get Out: Rethinking Escapism and Domestic Spectatorship

    Caetlin Benson-Allott:

    Beginning Turn On, Tune In, Get Out: Rethinking Escapism and Domestic Spectatorship

    articulates the need for a theory of escapism, specifically as respite

    has never felt the need to get out more than the past few years but where is there to go?

    Theory: escapism as a spectatorial mode, one way viewers interpolate cultural objects

    "Escapism is a desire that viewers bring to media irrespective of its genre, spectacle, exhibition context, or reception culture"

    Viewers bring escapism, not vice versa.

    Critics call things "escapist" when they think media's artistic merit doesn't align with its popularity

    Escapism is frequently deployed in reference to media that has large fan communities

    Historicizing the term "escapist," which was coined in the 1930s. (Benson-Allott is including a lot of detail so look out for her book on this topic later.)

    "Escapism" is used both to argue that art should uphold morals AND that art doesn't need to engage with contemporary issues.

    "Escapist" is used by critics to indicate a disconnect between a piece of art and themselves.

    Previous work (by only 2 scholars) looks at escapism and whose pleasure is marginalized.

    Others have focused on genre but not looked at how or why viewers engage in escapism.

    As a viewer's sensibility changes, the viewer needs different escape.

    If different types of movies can provide escape in a shared geocultural moment, then escapism can't be located in a particular piece of media or genre.

    Escape from what? Not necessarily about a change of locale. "If it were, all fantasy films would supply escape to all viewers."

    "Escape may be hard to achieve, but it is not site-specific."

    Dr. Kimberly Hirsh at #FSNNA22:

    Lots of talk here about how what we're escaping is being ourselves, which makes me think about the Daniel Tiger song: "You can change your hair or what you wear but no matter what you do, you're still you."

    Caetlin Benson-Allott:

    "Because pleasure is a process, it represents an escap-ing, rather than an escape."

    "It cannot be an end, because it ends."

    We can find escapism in media that acknowledges inequity and injustice.

    "Desiring escape is not the same as desiring oblivion or obliviousness..."

    Dr. Kimberly Hirsh at #FSNNA22:

    Seriously this work is super rich and I can't possibly capture it all in a Twitter thread.

    Caetlin Benson-Allott:

    Escape as ex-cendance: getting out so you can go back

    #FSNNA22 Live Blog: Fandom During/After Covid

    Olivia Johnston-Riley:

    Next session: Fandom During/After COVID

    Norbert Nyari:

    “Reaching Fans Through Deeper Interaction: The Case of Concerts Through Games and Interactive Spaces”

    4 cases of concerts in games and interactive spaces: Fortnite is mostly a business approach.

    Norbert Nyari:

    Case 2: Adventure Quest 3D: Fan connection through gameplay

    Porter Robinson: Secret Spy more about connecting fans through virtual spaces, chat, avatars, VR

    Case 4: Concerts organized by Wave. Real-time motion capture. Trying to create interaction between artist and fans.

    Key takeaways: new ways for fans to connect, artists found new ways to interact. "What is the impact of the fan persona?"

    Eva Liu:

    Talking about how stage musicals in China are thriving while Broadway is not - uses the closing of Phantom of the Opera on Broadway as an example.

    First key to success is the introduction of the immersive theater genre. Special environments and audience participation.

    Immersive theater's smaller audience size is good during pandemic

    2nd key: Embracing idol fandom. Free drawing for idol performer cards. Exploiting fan labor for marketing.

    Fan-made souvenirs, fan photography.

    Key #3: Let's queer the theatres. All-male cast, cross-dressing, queer-baiting. These all appeal to female gaze. ([@KimberlyHirsh]( How is Takarazuka doing? Could be a cool transnational study.)

    "the pleasure obtained from face-to-face interaction is irreplaceable"

    All previous Eva Liu tweets are from @EvaLiu1996

    Olivia Johnston-Riley:

    “Podficcing in the Pandemic” Key terms: Accessibility, Identity, Experience, Creating, Consuming, Socializing

    Podfic is fanfiction recorded aloud and shared as audiopods online. Some people never thought of it as accessible while other people, esp with print disability, used it. ([@KimberlyHirsh]( like fanfiction audiobooks)

    Some fans used time they would otherwise have gone out to socialize to record podfic. Others experienced trauma and/or just felt pandemic didn't give them more time to create.

    Listening to human voices made people feel less alone, but people who lost their commute or had more other people at home listened to less podfic.

    Podfic community was an important social activity for some participants.

    Qing Xiao:

    “‘Are We Friends or Opponents?’ Fans’ Relationship Changes from Online To Offline” with Yuhang Zheng

    In idol fans pre-COVID there was a hierarchy where offline fans were considered "core fans" and online fans were more peripheral, but as idols moved activities online during COVID-19, this dynamic changed.

    More affordable to attend signings, don't have to navigate physical distance

    Change of fan space made it more equitable, less hierarchical. Will the old patterns resurface? How do these patterns work in fandoms surrounding fictional works/characters?

    Julian Hofmann:

    with Dina Rasolofoarison: “Where Is roundtables Fandom Acted Out in 2022? An Update on Places of Fan Practices”

    inclusive definition of fandom - not just cult media, but specific nations/cultures, cooking, and more

    2 dimensions of places: 1. places have functions, 2. places of substitute consumption - driven by restrictions of time, money, or place

    Dr. Kimberly Hirsh at #FSNNA22:

    There's lots of great conversation happening in this session but I got distracted and am a little overwhelmed, sorry.

    Eva Liu:

    Eva talked about my question about Takarazuka, pointing out that while Takarazuka (Japanese all-women musical theater) has a strict division between otokoyaku (performers who always play men) and musumeyaku (performers who always play women) 1/2

    ...Chinese and South Korean immersive theaters that feature all-male casts might have a performer play a man in one production and a woman in another.

    #FSNNA2022 Live Blog: The New Bedroom Cultures

    Dr. Nicola Welsh-Burke:

    introducing the panel "The New Bedroom Cultures"

    Elise Sandbach:

    “The Growth of Fangirls and Fanfiction During the COVID-19 Lockdown” "A bit of an accidental autoethnographic activity"

    Dissertation focused on Harley Quinn and her relationship with her fangirls. Argued that Harley moved from sexualized object of the male gaze to reclaimed character, and credits fanfiction with this move.

    Interested in the transition of fans from producers to consumers.

    Fell down a fanfiction rabbithole on TikTok.

    Sociology theory about bedroom culture highlights bedroom as a sacred space for adolescent girls, originally considered bedroom as consumer space but more recent scholarship argues that bedroom culture includes production

    The transition from consumer to producer was pressurized during lockdown, which led to a boom of fan engagement.

    Léa Andolfi:

    Discusses fannish bedroom cultures during the lockdown, fanfiction as a bedroom ritual. Presentation draws on interviews conducted during Master's.

    Title of talk is “A Fandom of One’s Own: Fanfiction as a Bedroom Ritual During COVID-19”

    Fanfiction is defined by intimacy, both in its topics and in the spaces it exists in.

    Participants could personalize emotion via tags: hurt/comfort, enemies-to-loves, fluff...

    "reception on a loop" You experience the original media, seek out fan-created media, engage in fan practices regularly, which drives you to seek out the next piece of new media.

    Reading fanfiction is a personal ritual, "alone time"

    Socialization in digital spaces allowed fans to maintain kinship and community.

    Dr. Nicola Welsh-Burke:

    notes that @andolfi_lea mentioned parasocial relationships which probably all of them have something to say about

    Dr. Welsh-Burke's talk is “‘I Am on My KNEES’: TikTok as a New Site of Adolescent Sexual Desire”

    looking at experience of female fans as producers and fans

    Noticed enthusiastic display of sexual desire in caption of fan vid on TikTok, liked it and started to get more recs for things where people have "extreme affective responses"

    This content on TikTok was a positive reclamation of the stereotype of fangirls as only interested in certain topics (e.g. sexy topics)

    TikTok is an especially bedroom-y media space in terms of both creation and consumption.


    presenting “Bedroom Cultures but Make It Enby Cottage Core: Reading Shakespeare as a Disabled Trans Fan”

    warning: going to discuss bigotry, esp. transphobia, and safety

    Discussing reading Shakespeare's "As You Like It" as a trans text. Rosalind & Celia live a queer-utopian cottagecore life in the Forest of Arden.

    IRL when marginalized people meet each other it's not always self. There's bigotry related to different combos of marginalization.

    In The Forest of Arden, it feels as if everyone is safe.

    "If all those queer people running around in the forest are the monsters, then we have nothing to fear. Everyone is safe."

    In the Forest of Arden, "everyone is always possibly polyamorous." It's bittersweet to contrast this with spaces in real life.

    This contrast is more pronounced when the person doing the looking/reading is trans & disabled.

    Anecdote about harassment at a coffee shop that ended with Dean feeling the owners of the shop would blame Dean for being a magnet for harassment if a similar incident happened again.

    The "depressing, gray" bedroom experience is attractive because there aren't a lot of people that can harass you there.

    There's an interesting relationship between trans' people's experience of being expected not to even exist outside and these fantasies of the cottagecore forest (and other safe spaces) inside.

    Elise Sandbach:

    In some fandoms, e.g. superhero and Star Wars, other people in fandoms perceive the source material as "serious" and were worried fangirls would "drag it down" because fangirls are interested in "silly things"

    Dr. Kimberly Hirsh at #FSNNA22:

    The discussion is getting really good but I'm struggling to keep up with tweets, sorry!

    Dr. Nicola Welsh-Burke:

    Saw Twitter thread about how there used to be no women in nerdy spaces and, of course, there were and many people argued against OP but sadly lots of people were also agreeing.


    There's a similar phenomenon where people claim there weren't trans people in fan spaces in the past, which is patently untrue.

    Dr. Nicola Welsh-Burke:

    "It's interesting to think about the multiplicities of bedroom cultures that are getting made" - referring to a statement @DeanLeetal made about how different people need different forms of escape.

    We need art of everyone in their own bedrooms engaging with their own bedroom cultures.

    Creator of that original video on TikTok shut down their account. This leads to loss of a lot of born-digital stuff that it would be good to capture for methodology. (Come to our #FanLIS session and talk to us about born-digital preservation!)

    Léa Andolfi:

    As fans we have to do that work of archiving. ([@KimberlyHirsh]( shout-out to @De_Kosnik's book Rogue Archives)

    It's also an ethical question - if we've preserved something, do we keep studying it even after the creator has taken it down?

    Elise Sandbach:

    When fanfiction is brought up to creators/actors, it's often in a degrading way.

    Dr. Nicola Welsh-Burke:

    There's also an issue of consent with actors, who might not want to hear about what their characters get up to in fanfiction.

    In chat, Erin Lee Mock points out "For many people, COVID lockdown was not an experience of isolation, but of greater carework obligations, etc. Is there space within discussion of "bedroom cultures" for these individuals, especially as relates to fan production?"

    Léa Andolfi:

    Talking about how even as teens, girls often have more caregiving responsibilities so in that sense bedroom cultures still works.


    Points out that home is not always a safe space, especially for multiply marginalized people.

    Dr. Nicola Welsh-Burke:

    Luisa de Mesquita asks "I was wondering if there are any significant differences in engagement with fandom and fannish practices between those who were already 'established' fans and those who became fans during the pandemic?"

    Elise Sandbach:

    speculating that it will vary - some people will have come to fandom during the pandemic and stay in it for life, but others as they are less isolated will engage with fandom less

    Kirsten Crowe asks "I wonder about the experience of college aged people returning to their childhood bedrooms and how that shaped fannish experiences in terms of bedroom culture during the pandemic"

    Dr. Nicola Welsh-Burke:

    Yes, thanks to pandemic I finished my MSc in my childhood bedroom, will finish my PhD in childhood bedroom, doing this from childhood bedroom 😄

    Elise Sandbach:

    That last tweet should've been from @SandbachElise.

    Dr. Nicola Welsh-Burke:

    It's really interesting to return to your childhood bedroom and engage with fandom on a new platform when you engaged with fandom there years ago.

    Elise Sandbach:

    It's interesting to note that we're in our bedrooms studying other people in their bedrooms.

    Responses to the chat during my #FanLIS2022 presentation

    The chat runs by much too quickly to scroll with it while presenting but I love the vibrance of #FanLIS2022 chat so I wanted to go through and respond to people’s comments from my presentation, in addition to answering direct questions. So here we go!

    procrastination and indecision then instantaneous dissertation topic is such an adhd mood

    I’m not diagnosed, but you’re not wrong.

    embodied fannishness

    YES. More studies on how fans express their fandom with their bodies, please.

    I’m kind of curious to see how many Cosplayers base their information process on others'.

    This is a great question. I only got at individual practices and how others' shared resources are an influence, not shared process, but I did have 2 participants collaborating on an epic Yuri On Ice wedding cosplay who used similar curation methods. I wonder if groups that frequently collaborate have more commonalities in their information practices.

    I feel there is some modesty that comes with cosplayers and that would refrain them to define as creators

    I think that’s right. They don’t necessarily identify as creators, though I did have 2 participants refer to themselves as “makers.” But whether they’d use the term or not, the position they put themselves in with both trial-and-error and documentation of their construction processes is information creators.

    Some of my tweets from #FanLIS2022 Day 1

    I was able to recover my Noter Live log, yay! I’ll go back and collect the tweets from after my reboot later.

    Dr Suzanne Black:

    has been joined by a cat. This is the most important thing to know about the FanLIS Symposium.

    Every technology/platform seems to impose a taxonomy because you have to for organization.

    JSA Lowe:

    sharing about visual/material design of fan-bound texts. I'm ([@KimberlyHirsh]( obsessed with the desire to make them look like books from a particular era (pulp, 80s or 90s mass market) and even distress them so they look used.

    Dr Naomi Jacobs:

    Fanbinders learn so many different skills related to design and craft.

    #FSNNA21 livetweet log:

    Dr. Lesley Willard:

    Introducing topic. How do scholars in fan & media studies articulate their discipline? How do these disciplines interact? When don't they?

    Shares current book project: discussing labor & affordances on Steam. Last Nov Steam launched Steam Playtest, a way for indie developers to test games early. How does this impact the labor market for games?

    Steam Playtest has been called "Beta testing for beta testing." Steam also has Early Access, which lets indie developers charge for in-development games.

    All of this involves relying on Steam users to perform labor, to do QA work for free or pay for the opportunity to participate in the development process.

    These features displace pro playtesters & QA reps.

    This reliance on fan affective labor isn't unique to games, but Steam playtest/Early Access provides a rich area for case study.

    Nick Bestor:

    How do we define the type of interaction at play in licensed tabletop (esp card) games? Are the people best understood as fans or players?

    Describing experience of going to tournament for the Game of Thrones Living Card Game.

    Now talking about writing tournament report to post to Fantasy Flight (game publisher) forums.

    Licensed games matter and in many ways. Bestor describes needing another outlet for GoT fandom beyond books & shows.

    Story worlds vs/as game worlds.

    Do Bestor's experiences make him a fan? A player?


    Who/what counts as a gamer? A game?

    How does a fan identity get drawn out differently in fan-created product places like Etsy for example, Stardew Valley blanket yes, but it's hard to find fiber crafts for FPSs like Call of Duty.

    When we consider game fandom, we should "remember the cozy fandoms and that digital leisure is not one-size-fits-all."

    Latina Vidolova:

    Discussing "Netflix Anime Festival" & how Netflix often creates "anime" that doesn't even have an anime studio/creative team.

    Netflix is redefining what "anime fan" means by describing anyone who has watched any "anime" on Netflix as a fan, when Vidolova sees this as a tension between defining fan & user.

    Gamers come into play considering "Netflix Geeked," a subbrand that includes sci fi, fantasy, superheroes, & more (with video games & anime as part of that "more")

    Generalizing what anime means - animated adaptation of video game property = "anime"

    Netflix branding defines fan according to engaging with these at all rather than a coherent community.

    Netflix & Crunchyroll have both created animated Youtubers do promote anime & video games.

    e-girls on TikTok create a mise-en-scene of playing video games; identity of player or fan is secondary to creating aesthetic image.

    Fan studies "is attuned to affective attachment to particular story worlds and relationships" while the TikTok egirls are more about putting together pieces and fragments.

    Game studies looks at these kinds of "fan fragments" and how they come together in a different way than fan studies does. e.g. how do people choose an avatar?

    Amanda Cote:

    Discussing crunch time in the game industry and the relationship players have with it. Industry pros sometimes try to rally fans around crunch practices.

    Method - analyzing player reactions to articles about crunch practices; study is ongoing, but so far more fans seem to support crunch practices.

    Gamer identity is forefronted both among supporters & critics.

    Consumer identity and fan identity are also present. Value judgments justified by identity all around: if you're a fan, wouldn't you object to crunch time bc you care about the people making the game?

    Gamer/consumer/fan identites have been examined more in fan studies than in game studies.

    #FSNNA21 livetweet log:

    Adriana Amaral:

    First, the state of fan studies in Brazil: research focused on digital settings but still working on integrating digital methods with other methods. Transcultural fan studies scholarship does focus on music fandom.

    8 themes identified in lit review of Brazilian fan studies research - 1) The fan condition and identities; 2) Fandom consumption practices; 3) Digital Media fan practices and dynamics; 4) Fandom as community;

    5) Fan activism; 6) Politics and Fandom; 7) Nostalgia and fans; 8) Fan production and works

    Currently building Brazilian fan studies digital archive at and next step is interviewing authors.

    Dr Lies Lanckman 🏳️‍🌈:

    Dr. Lies Lanckman is looking at Yiddish-language Hollywood fan magazines, esp. from the 30s & analyzing fan letters in the magazines.

    Allegra Rosenberg:

    "Affordances & Paradigms in Platformed Fandom"

    Fandom has moved from self-contained/self-managed spaces to platforms controlled by others/corporations.

    Examples of commercial + cultural tension in fandom use of platforms: Tumblr’s porn ban • YA NFT scandal • TikTok Omegaverse LARP • Hannibal Twitter Wars • Censorship of AO3 in China

    Considerations: Algorithmic fandom, boundary-enforcing norms, encounters with the fourth wall, platform-native emergent fan practices, AO3 as anti-platform

    Important to keep in mind that while platform affordances shape fan behavior, "fans find a way"

    Future RQs: Where can resistance & creativity be found in platformed fan practices? How does digital literacy/understanding of the nature of a given platform affect norms and values of the fan communities that use it?

    How does the “first fandom experiences” of teenagers materially differ when it occurs via algorithm, and how does it continue to affect their journey through fandom?

    Christina Reichts:

    "From tool to lens - A case study of applying digital methods in fan studies"

    Research project - "Marveling at Darcy Lewis"

    Scraped information & texts from AO3 and ended up with about 2,419 fics

    Using a tool called tag refinery alongside the process of topic model analysis for text selection

    Are we using digital methods as tools or as lenses for engaging with theoretical frameworks: queer studies, feminist studies, intersectional feminism?

    Another Alex:

    "Mushroom for improvement: Theorizing a new model for the circulation of fan objects"

    Mycelium model focuses on movement of fan objects, agency of fans, flexible & agile model that is based off the radiating organism of fungi with genre as scaffolding

    Multimodal methodology: autoethnography, desk research using thursdaysfallenangel's survey on fanfiction consumption & sharing habits, case studies

    Mad at Your Dad/Craiglist Thanksgiving trope. Based off Craigslist ad where poster offered self as deliberately bad Thanksgiving date

    Used manual data collection to look at post with 562K+ notes at time of writing, and then GEPHI as network visualization tool

    Alex is sharing super cool visualization with posts indicated by dots, reblogs by lines, and fandom by color of dot & line

    Multifandom blogs provided most notes, then small clusters of particular fandom blogs

    Adriana Amaral:

    asks @alexanthoudakis about using a mushroom model which reflects a broader trend in cultural studies of using biological metaphors. What are the implications for theoretical considerations?

    Another Alex:

    Considered metaphors for things that happened organically, references other scholars who use virality as a metaphor. Important not to forget the PEOPLE in the process.

    Originally started with the idea of tentacles, but they only radiate out from one point, don't capture horizontal circulation of fan objects. Same text that suggested tentacles also discussed mushrooms, so began researching mushrooms

    Found philosophy paper that used mycelium as metaphor, cemented the idea that Alex was looking for.

    #FSNNA21 livetweet log:

    This doesn’t include the discussion/Q&A because things started to go so fast I couldn’t keep up.

    Stacy Lantagne:

    introducing other panelists in "The Money Question"

    Copyright law is designed to incentivize creativity, "to reward authors for being creative."

    Lawyers think about financial repercussions of creativity/copyright, but fans tend to not focus on finances as reason for engaging in fanac, esp. fic.

    Copyright law suggests that people require the financial incentive to be creative, but fans demonstrate there are many other motivations.

    If we know people will be creative with motivations other than financial, then what is copyright law accomplishing if the incentive assumption is flawed?

    Is copyright blocking creativity because it is too restrictive?

    If $ enters a space where previously it wasn't part of the motivation/incentive structure, how do copyright considerations change once $ is introduced to the space?

    When fans demand compensation, it gets stickier because they are creating within the world of somebody else's creation. Fanworks, however, are protected by fair use, "a really messy doctrine," with market harm as one of the explicit factors evaluated to determine if it's fair use.

    We want to protect public good with copyright, not private gain. If you're making $, you can presumably afford to license intellectual property.

    Copyright exceptions for news reporting & education, for example, promote the public good.

    Fair use doctrine doesn't provide ability to exploit EVERYTHING, some things are reserved for creator.

    If you aren't making $, copyright holder has a harder time arguing you're affecting their market/bottom line, but if you are charging, now it looks like you're siphoning $ from copyright holder.

    THIS DOES NOT MEAN EVERYTHING DONE FOR FREE IS OKAY UNDER FAIR USE DOCTRINE. Some free stuff is still copyright infringement! eg music & video piracy


    "Keeping things noncommercial is the safest way that lawyers can see for protecting fan activities." & this is why AO3 has lots of rules about noncommercial use.

    $ attracts attention, so copyright holders are more likely to sue if $ is involved.

    We are seeing more ways that fans monetize their creations & Stacey is curious about non-lawyers' thoughts.

    [quick disclaimer, Kimberly Hirsh is not A lawyer and Stacey Lantagne is not YOUR lawyer.]

    What about when copyright holders claim that they own rights to fan work? Platforms that are monetizing fan labor?

    Daria Romanova:

    Let's talk about LARPS! Daria came from fashion & media studies & is new to fan studies in the past ~6 mos.

    LARP = Live-Action Role Playing.

    LARPing is an event and a game, often based on/inspired by media products, appeals to fans, utilizes physical assets like props, costumes, food, accommodation. Can't be 100% free.

    Is LARP a commercial endeavor or not?

    LARPs aren't always medieval/fantasy themed. Other examples: wizarding, Downton Abbey/Upstairs-Downstairs "Fairweather Manor," Star Wars, Westworld.

    You can't participate in a LARP without spending $ on accommodations, tickets, costumes, props.

    LARPs also have merchandise.

    College of Wizardry LARP originally used Harry Potter terms, but received contact from legal (at WB? JKR estate?) & subsequently changed names.

    Case study - Star Wars Saberfighting - you can pay to take lightsaber fighting classes, which resulted in a market for unlicensed light sabers.

    There is a relationship between embodied fanac like LARPing & $, which creates tension btwn fan creations & licensed merch.

    Julie Escurignan:

    Studying Game of Thrones fan experiences, analyzed brand, good brand due to fan loyalty & HBO branding work, with particular visual identity & brand image.

    Distinction between official merchandise, licensed (like Monopoly), and unlicensed (like fan-created). Some fan creators do it just for fan love, some for career/biz, and some creators of unlicensed merch aren't fans.

    3 types of GoT on Etsy: reuse/distory/mock HBO features, inspired by GoT, GoT for SEO purposes (not actually GoT related)

    Fan-made items tend to cost 2-3x less than similar official items.

    While reappropriation items often are similar to official/licensed items, "inspired by" items - for example cosplay items - are filling a gap, as this kind of thing isn't usually offered through official/licensed channels.

    Fans in places where official places don't ship (eg HBO doesn't ship outside of USA) must choose either to purchase resold items that will ship to them or fan-created items that will ship to them.

    Surveyed fans in English, French, & Spanish. About 1/5 of fans purchase exclusively fan creation, 70-80% prefer official, 50% or so buy both.

    Fan tourists & cosplayers purchase more items than other fans. Fans mention Etsy as place to purchase

    Fan consumers often like to purchase fan-created artifacts in order to support other fans.

    Conflict btwn fans' stated support of fan creators and actual purchasing habits which when possible they prefer to buy official products.

    Personal reflections after (but not really on) #FanLIS

    My head is swimming after attending the #FanLIS symposium today. At this moment when I’m taking a few weeks off before launching consulting, occasionally doing job interviews, and mostly resting, I’m in the middle of an existential crisis about what I want to do and who I want to be.

    I’m in a position where, if I can bring in a fair amount of freelance work, I could use some of my time as an independent scholar and I think that’s what I want to do. I’m not interested in academia-as-institutionalized-in-higher-ed but I love scholarship. I don’t want to not be a scholar.

    I’ve been reviewing my notes from Katie Rose Guest Pryal’s Book The Freelance Academic and this quote is standing out to me today:

    Our tracks are, by necessity, only limited by our own creativity. They literally are what we make them. (p. 49 in the Kindle edition)

    So this is my track today. Freelance academic/independent scholar-librarian.

    Tomorrow: Digging into Raul Pacheco-Vega’s blog for help setting up my workflows moving forward.

    Most of my tweets from #FanLIS

    I’m planning to return and clean up formatting and add links to videos once they’re online, but for now, here’s a collection of everything I tweeted from the presentations at #FanLIS, handily compiled and tweeted for me by Noter Live.

    Ludi Price 柏詠璇:

    introducing #FanLIS - fans are information workers par excellence

    Leisure interests are important to study because they are what we choose to do and are no less important than any other aspect of our lives: work, health, etc.

    Fan information work is a subset of fun information work.

    How can we harness the passion fans have for solving the problems of LIS? Can we?

    #FanLIS seeks to explore the liminal space where fandom, fan studies, and LIS interact and can hopefully learn from each other. What do we know? Where should we go next as a field of research?

    Colin Porlezza:

    They examined methods reported in Journal of Fandom Studies & Transformative Works and Cultures. Used computational analysis to scrape all keywords for both journals & inductively analyzed sample of 50 abstracts. Compared with a similar study in journalism.

    Eleonora Benecchi, PhD:

    20 most often occurring keywords tended to focus on research setting, media or media type, phenomenon investigated

    Top theory keywords include gender, ethics, participatory culture, cultural theories, feminism, CRT, queer theory, and more. Significant overlap between theory keywords in fan studies & journalism but not in overall keywords.

    Wide variety of methods employed in fan studies. Of those named specifically, ethnography is most frequent, then terms referring to specific methodological techniques (interviews, content analysis, etc). Only methodological perspective present aside from ethnography & its subtypes is case study

    Colin Porlezza:

    Dominant perspectives are sociology, culture, economics, language, history, technology

    Most studies don't cite a specific theoretical perspective but many theories are used in the ones that do.

    Abstract often lacked reference to specific research methodological approach. Ethnography & case studies. Discourse analysis & textual analysis dominant as well.

    Eleonora Benecchi, PhD:

    Conclusion: explicitly naming theoretical & methodological approaches in keywords & abstracts makes fan studies more visible to other disciplines. We should tag our research as carefully as we tag our fanfic.

    Using IMRAD (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) format for abstract increases likelihood of paper being read.

    Magnus Pfeffer:

    discussing project to explore possiblity of taking data generated by enthusiast communities and creating knowledge graph for researchers to use

    Examples of visual media enthusiast data repositories include Visual Novel Database, AnimeClick, Anime Characters Database

    Enthusiasts had positive response to project, wanted to cooperate to make data available with an intermediary who can bridge expertise between enthusiasts and researchers.

    Used RDF format of Entity - Property - Value.

    Each community has its own data model. Goal is to examine all of these, which vary according to domain (manga vs anime vs visual novel, etc) and create data model that can be used across domains.

    Custom web front end allows researcher to retrieve data. Human-readable labels appear instead of actual data which makes exploration easy.

    Can identify identical entities mentioned in multiple enthusiast data sources. Goal is to combine them into single entity.

    All data is linked to original enthusiast source, enabling researchers to verify info and even interact with enthusiasts.

    Want to maintain specific source ontologies rather than trying to impose a particular perspective on enthusiast data.

    Share Alike requirement in CC licenses present a challenge. (I'd love to hear more about this. Would applying a CC license to the knowledge graph handle this?)

    Project website:

    Aris Emmanouloudis:

    Using lenses from fan studies and platform studies to look at the rise and fall? and preservation of Twitch Plays Pokemon.

    Twitch Plays Pokemon is a crowd-sourced set of commands being sent to control Pokemon Red. Fans created a narrative/meta-text around the game on other platforms.

    Twitch Plays Pokemon moved on to other games after Pokemon Red and inspired Twitch Plays Street Fighter and Twitch Plays Dark Souls. Big decrease in participation for Twitch Plays Pokemon over time.

    RQs: What are the affordances that allowed the TPP community to emerge? How did the fans act as archivists?

    Qual research including looking at user-generated content, observation of stream and chat, and interview with anonymous streamer who established TPP.

    Brum's affordances of produser communities present in TPP: open participation, unfinished, meritocracy & heterarchy, communal property. (Did I miss one? Regardless, this reminds me a LOT of Gee's affinity spaces.)

    argues that lack of holding to accepted Twitch standards and choosing to improvise contributed to decrease of participation.

    Fans served as volunteer curators, while official channel administrators mostly focus on technical content and don't engage much with metanarrative.

    Conclusions - this is a hungry culture, not originally designed for expansion, small passionate group of fans remains, visiting past gameplay & nostalgia factor brings community together/revitalizes.

    Dr. Nele Noppe/ネラ・ノッパ🇪🇺🏳️‍🌈:

    What if we used fannish platforms to publish scholarship?

    Brainstorming doc at

    The open access workflow and results are v. similar to for-profit workflow and results. "We recreate a mirror image of for-profit scholarly publishing."

    We're constantly trying to prove that open access can be high quality. (What if we actually reimagine scholarly publishing? What if we make something so different it doesn't invite comparison?)

    Fan publishing and academic publishing have enough in common that fan publishing can help us reimagine scholarly publishing.

    Dr Alice M. Kelly (she/her):

    Talking about affect and its centrality to fanfiction. (Making me think of my #NSFEITM work with @marijel_melo and @theartofmarch and I'm wondering how widely affect is present in LIS research in general.)

    J Nicole Miller 💜🤍🖤:

    talking about fanfiction and info seeking behaviors of young adult readers

    suggests that methods for fanfiction info seeking can illuminate creation of library services & support

    RQs: How do YA find fanfic to read? How do they find fiction to read? How do those methods differ between each other? Are there differences between experienced fanfic readers and new fanfic readers?

    Pilot study with YA ages 18 - 23. Semistructured interviews. 90% of participants began engaging with fanfic & online fandom in high school.

    50% found fanfic via serendipity (Tumblr, Google, etc) and 40% via friends. (This connects with the importance of friends in my research on cosplay information literacy.)

    AO3 is clear winner for fanfic reading among participants. Apparently podfic has migrated to YouTube?

    None of participants went to librarians for book recs. (Oh my heart is breaking!)

    Paul Thomas 🦇:

    On Adventure Time: "As you can see, the show makes total sense." AHAHAHAHAHAHA

    Using analytic autoethnography. Sometimes gets flack from others who perceive autoethnography as not being rigorous.

    importance of roles and hierarchies in determining how to include/cite sources in wiki articles; how to

    Abigail De Kosnik:

    Talking about individual as library & librarian and individual as archive & archivist

    In a time of collapse (like now), we need to think about how people will preserve media and visual culture. The people doing this work are more likely to be pirates than institutional actors.

    Critics & legal opponents of archives are not framed as individuals, but are instead described as communities, collectives, and corporations.

    Oof the rhetoric of using libraries as stealing if you're not too poor to buy books. Yikes.

    Individuals feel responsibility for cultural preservation and distrust institutions to do it; systematic disinvestment in public preservation institutions fuels this.

    Academic libraries should learn from pirates' and fans' examples. Reject exploitative pricing models.

    Fans should take their fandom and love really seriously and think about whether they can be archivists or want to be archivists.


    Post-SCMS musings on the value of the word acafan


    A seemingly objective position is only subjectivity rendered invisible but still implicated.

    🔖 Read

    SCMS 2011 Workshop: Acafandom and the Future of Fan Studies


    🔖 Read

    Against Aca-Fandom